Science Magazine

About This Project

(SitC) is a collection of annotated research papers and accompanying teaching materials designed to help students understand the structure and workings of professional scientific research.
Science in the Classroom is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. DUE-1043998 and Grant No. DUE-1224661.  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. 
The materials on this website are produced by the Department of Education and Human Resources Programs at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science Editorial provides oversight and support. For feedback or further information contact the editors at
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Dr. Melissa McCartney, Project Director for Science in the Classroom, manages day to day operations, including communication with the Advisory Board, Independent Evaluator, and Web contractors, keeping abreast of relevant literature, and attending and presenting at relevant conferences.  Dr. McCartney has been working for over four years on developing and executing educational projects at Science, including special issues on education, is the current project manager of the Science Prize for Online Resources in Education (SPORE) and Science Prize for Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) awards, and has been managing and implementing Science in the Classroom.


Dr. Shirley Malcom is head of Education and Human Resources Programs at AAAS. She works to improve the quality and increase access to education and careers in STEM fields as well as to enhance public science literacy. Dr. Malcom is a trustee of Caltech and a regent of Morgan State University, and a member of the SUNY Research Council. She is a former member of the National Science Board, the policymaking body of the National Science Foundation, and served on President Clinton’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. Malcom , a native of Birmingham, Alabama, received her PhD in ecology from The Pennsylvania State University, masters in zoology from UCLA and bachelor’s with distinction in zoology from the University of Washington. She holds 16 honorary degrees. Malcom serves on the boards of the Heinz Endowments, Public Agenda, the National Math-Science Initiative and Digital Promise.  Internationally, she is a leader in efforts to improve access of girls and women to education and careers in science and engineering and to increase use of S&T to empower women and address problems they face in their daily lives, serving as co-chair of the Gender Advisory Board of the UN Commission on S&T for Development and  Gender InSITE, a global campaign to deploy S&T to help improve the lives and status of girls and women. In 2003, Dr. Malcom received the Public Welfare Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the highest award given by the Academy.
Dr. Jeremy M. Berg became Editor-in-Chief of Science and the Science family of journals in July 2016. He came to Science from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine where he was Associate Senior Vice Chancellor for Science Strategy and Planning and Pittsburgh Foundation Professor and Director of the Institute for Personalized Medicine. Prior to that, he served as the Director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. He has been recognized for his accomplishments with awards including the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry, the Eli Lilly Award for Fundamental Research in Biological Chemistry, the Barry Wood Award for Preclinical Teaching, the Graduate Student Teaching Award at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, selection as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, election to the National Academy of Medicine, and public service awards from the Biophysical Society, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Chemical Society, and the American Society for Cell Biology. He served as President of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 2011-2013.
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Dr. Pamela J. Hines, Senior Editor at Science, works with the Advisory Board to ensure the project remains aligned with the standards of Science.  Dr. Hines brings extensive experience at assessing quality and interest of science research papers, and working to improve the research as well as the presentation.  Her interactions with professional colleagues have resulted in a network of scientists and organizations that are interested in science education.  She has led development of the education-related content at Science, including special issues, research content, the Education Forum, the Science Prize for Online Resources in Education (SPORE), the Science Prize for Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI), and the Science Controversies: Online Partnerships in Education (SCOPE) project. 


Former Staff

Dr. Marcia McNutt is a geophysicist and former Editor-in-Chief of Science. Before joining Science, she served as the director of the U.S. Geological Survey, president and chief executive officer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, and as the Griswold Professor of Geophysics at MIT.  McNutt also served as president of the American Geophysical Union and as the chair of the Board of Governors for Joint Oceanographic Institutions.  She is a fellow of AGU, the Geological Society of America, AAAS, and the International Association of Geodesy.  McNutt's honors and awards include membership in the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
Dr. Bruce Alberts, Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of Science, provides "Science in the Classroom" with strategic oversight and linkage to leaders of science education efforts.  Dr. Alberts has a longstanding interest and involvement in many different aspects of science education.  He has been a leader worldwide in developing goals for science education and supporting productive change and innovation.  His personal knowledge of the topic and his extensive professional network, grounded in service at the National Academies of Science, the University of California at San Francisco, and as U.S. Science Envoy, bring exceptional depth and breadth to Science in the Classroom.
Fanny Bernardon, an intern at Science (Fall 2013), works on annotating research papers for Science in the Classroom and assists with website maintenance and social media visibility. She is an undergraduate student in her third year at University Paris Descartes (Paris, France). The interdisciplinary curriculum she is following at school  includes mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, computer science, didactics, and the philosophy of science. Her main scientific interests are virology and bio-modelization including population dynamics and differential equations.
Michael Crabtree, an editorial intern at Science (Fall 2014), works on annotating research papers for Science in the Classroom, in addition to updating and maintaining the website. Michael is a PhD student at the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, UK), where he studies the role of residual structure in intrinsically disordered proteins. Before moving into his current field of biophysics, Michael developed a broad scientific background, attaining his undergraduate degree in Medical Science at the University of Birmingham, before achieving his Masters in Drug Discovery at King’s College London.

From January 2013 to present:
Bruce Alberts, Professor Emeritus, University of California, San Francisco
Sheri Klug Boonstra, Director of the Mars Education Program, Arizona State University
Sally Hoskins, Professor of Biology, The City College of New York
Scott Freeman, Principal Lecturer, University of Washington
Sharon Lee-Bond, Associate Professor of Biology, Northampton Community College  
Rebecca Price, Assistant Professor, University of Washington Bothell
Roberta Tanner, High School Physics and Engineering teacher, Teacher Advisory Council of the National Academy of Science 
Janice A. Hudgings, Vice President and Dean of the College, Pomona College
Ton de Jong, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, University of Twente, Netherlands
Richard Losick, Professor of Biology, Harvard College
Stephen P. Norris, Professor and Canada Research Chair in Scientific Literacy, University of Alberta 
Barbara Schulz, Science Education Consultant, former Biology Teacher Leader
Barbara Shannon, Co-Founder and Co-Director of Synergy Kinetic Academy
Marietta Wright, Department of Biology, Waynesburg University

Robert H. Tai, of R. H. Tai Science Educational Research Consulting

Alan Cooper, The University of Adelaide
Andreas Brandmaire, Max Planck Institute
Ann Powell, University of California, Davis
Anne-Cecile Reymann, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant (iRTSV)
Axel Visel, Lawrence Berkeley National Labroratory
Bert Vogelstein, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Brandon Schmandt, University of New Mexico
Carter Haines, University of Texas at Dallas
Catia Attanasio, Center for Integrative Genomics, UNIL 
Charles R. M. Bangham, Imperial College London
Christoph Schmidt, University of Göttingen
Christopher Ellison, University of California Berkeley
Cristian Tomasetti, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
David Comer Kidd, The New School for Social Research 
David Kingsley, Stanford University School of Medicine
Dimas Oteyza
Dongran Han, Wyss Institute at Harvard University
Doris Bachtrog, University of California Berkeley
Edward S. BoydenMassechusetts Institute of Technology Synthetic Neurobiology Group
Elçin ÜnalUniversity of California Berkeley
Erin N. DiMaggio, Penn State University
Ethan Bier, University of California at San Diego
Ethel M. Villalobos, University of Hawaii 
Felix R. Fischer, University of California Berkeley
Hilary Gerstein, Center for Neuroscience and Society, University of Pennsylvania
Florent Ginhoux, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research
Fred Bunz, Johns Hopkins Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Frederick C. MacKintosh, VU University Amsterdam
Geraldine Wright, Newcastle University Institute of Neuroscience
Gerd Kempermann, Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden
H. James Tripp, Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute
Ilje Pikaar, The University of Queensland
Jamie Peters, The University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine.
Jan Dumanski, Uppsala University
Jens P. Magnusson, Karolinska Institute
Jeremy Brockes, University College London Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology
Jim Westwood, Virginia Tech
Joep J. H. Pijpers, Sun Catalytix
John Grady, University of New Mexico
Jonathan Kurtis, Brown University
Jonathan F. Miller, Drexel University
Julia Freund, Max Planck Institute
Katherine G. Akers, The Hospital for Sick Children 
Kate E. Langwig, Boston University and University of Califirnia Santa Cruz
Kaye Reed, Arizone State University
Keith C. Cheng, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Kieren Mitchell, The University of Adelaide
Kimberly Prather, University of California San Diego
Laurent Blanchoin, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant (iRTSV)   
Lida Katsimpardi, Harvard Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Biology
Lulu Xie, University of Rochester
Yao Lu, University College London
Maiken Nedergaard, University of Rochester
Malcolm Burrows, The University of Cambridge
Mark Raizen, The University of Texas at Austin, Center for Nonlinear Dynamic
Markus SchmidMax Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
Martin Chalfie, Columbia University  
Matthew Hansen, University of Maryland
Matthew Kayser, The University of Pennsylvania
Michael Mina, Emory University School of Medicine
Michel Milinkovitch, Laboratory of Artificial & Natural Evolution (LANE) 
Mietje Germonpré, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Miltos Tsiantis, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Nicholas van der Elst, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University
Olaf Thalmann, University of Turku
Pardis Sabeti, Harvard University
Paul A. Rupar, The University of Alabama
Paul W. Frankland, The Hospital for Sick Children 
Paul W. Tillberg, Massechusetts Institute of Technology Synthetic Neurobiology Group
Peter Reddien, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Ray H. Baughman, University of Texas at Dallas 
Raffaella Morganti, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy 
Rebecca Moore, Google
Richard Baer, Columbia University
Rose Cory, University of Michigan
Samuel Wasser, University of Washington
Sarah Heller, University of Pennsylvania
Sean Wojcik, University of California, Irvine
Shaun Marcott, University of Wisconsin, Madison 
Scot Rafkin, Southwest Research Institute
Scott Tomlins, University of Michigan Medical School
Silvio O. Rizzoli, University of Göttingen Medical Center
Spencer Dreher, Merck & Co.
Steve Ramirez, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Steven D. Jacobsen, Northwestern University
Steven Y. Reece, Research Scientist at Sun Catalytix
Sven Pettersson, Nanyang Technological University
Thomas H. Kunz, Boston University
Thomas Ludwig, Columbia University
Thomas Spatzal, California Institute of Technology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Tongcang Li, Purdue University, 
Vanessa Ridaura, Washington University in St. Louis
Vinatha Sreeramkumar, Department of Atherothrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain
Wenbiao Gan, New york University School of Medicine
Winifred Frick, University of California Santa Cruz
Xiaoyu "Rayne" Zheng, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Yoel Stuart, University of Texas at Austin
Yohei Yamauchi, ETH Zurich 

Adam Swiercz, The George Washington University. Wrote content for Learning to let go: The extinction of fear memory.
Adam Thomas, Naional Institutes of Health.  Wrote content for One RING to rule them all and Arrested development: when cells make huge mistakes
Amaury Monmeyran, Universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for How did dogs become our best friend?
Alyssa Chamberlain. Wrote content for Does bad luck cause cancer?
Barthélémy Caron, Universities Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for How did dogs become our best friend?
Benay Akyon, University of Pittsburgh.  Wrote content for Sewer pipes party: sulfate is not invited
Bob Kao, PhD, Heritage University. Wrote content for Expanding the limits of optical resolution
Catherine Eisenhauer, Universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for Overcrowding in neuronal synapses  
Catherine Richardson, The New School for Social Research.  Wrote content for A Point to Reading 
Cécile Gaston, Universities Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot  and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for How did dogs become our best friend?
Chantal Bodkin-Clarke, Johns Hopkins University. Wrote content for Rats to the rescue.
Cristina Walcher-Chevillet, University of Washington.  Wrote content for It's not easy being green tomatoes
Desiree Stanley, University of California San Francisco.  Wrote content for Cracking the Armor 
Elaine Y. Guo, University of California San Diego.  Wrote content for Sleep: no longer just for dreaming
Erin Elisabeth Cunningham, University of Maryland. Wrote content for Western U.S. on the rise
Eshini Panditharatna, George Washington University. Wrote content for Brain makeover 
Ewen Corre, Universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for Overcrowding in neuronal synapses   
Emily Mason, Vanderbilt University, Wrote content for ake more naps, become more attractive!
Fanny Bernardon, University Paris Descartes.  Wrote content for Lemmings:  They're What's for Dinner and How Dynamic is your Virus?
Fred Wasserman, Boston University. Wrote content for There's a New Kid in Town
Gillian R. Siegal, Rockefeller University.  Wrote content for What the Pelvis Can Teach Us About Evolution
Greg Crowther, and his students Courtney Abrams, Shuvam Chaudhuri, Jennifer Dankoff, Elsha Eggink, Andrew Hinkle, Homma Khosroyani, Yu Lee, Keegan McElligott, Robert Miller, Birk Nielsen, Ji Park, Nikolas Pershing, Sonali Shukla, Katherine Sturtevant, Mizuki Suzuki, Kyle Vong and Yui Wong, University of Washington, Bothell.  Wrote content for Shape shifters of the plant world and A shoot full of sugar helps the flowering begin
Gurshagan Kandhola. Wrote content for High-throughput screening of drug leads.
Hilary Barker, University of Wisconsin- Madison.  Wrote content for Seeing the forest for the trees
Hilary Gerstein, Center for Neuroscience and Society, University of Pennsylvania. Wrote content for Amyloid and tau: Both may be needed for developing Alzheimer's disease
Ian Winkelstern, University of Michigan. Wrote content for Human evolution likely encouraged by a dry climate
 Ihab Boulas, Universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for Overcrowding in neuronal synapses  
Jason Librande, San Diego Miramar College. Wrote content for Limb regeneration: fact or (science) fiction?
Jean-Baptiste Caron, Universities Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot  and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for How did dogs become our best friend?
Jessica Boehler, The George Washington University.  Wrote content for Twist and Shout
Jessica Ham. Wrote content for Empowering youth through summer jobs
Johanna Sandlund, Karolinska Institute.  Wrote content for A New Diagnostic Strategy for Prostrate Cancer
John Huang, The George Washington University.  Wrote content for Mosquitoes be gone!
Jole Fiorito, Columbia University.  Wrote content foMimicking a bundle of waste: Influenza A virus strategic attack 
Katherine Woronowicz, University of California San Francisco.  Wrote content for Can DNA enhance your look? and What can invertebrates tell us about back pain?
Kelly Resmer, Mt. Saint Vincent University.  Wrote content for Chemical Reactions Up Close.  
Kenton Hokanson, University of California San Francisco.  Wrote content for Deep Clean Your Brain in One Easy Step! and You are what you least, your brain is.
Leila Duman, University of Maryland (Sita Research Group). Wrote content for Crystal Clear. 
Marla Kay Perna, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.  Wrote content for The original GPS: how we remember what happened where
Nicholas van der Elst, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University.  Wrote content for Quake, Rattle, and Roll 
Oya Cingöz, Columbia University.  Wrote content for The Bee, the Mite, and the Virus
Patricia WeisenseeUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Wrote content for Say goodbye to stains
Parmit Singh, National Institutes of Health.  Wrote content for Jumping Genes! and Stop! Codon time! 
Paul Beardsley. Wrote content for CSI Africa: Tracking ivory poachers
Pierre Nauleau, Columbia University. Wrote content for Light as a feather, strong as an ox
Rachel Hood, University of California at Berkeley.  Wrote content for Are Gut microbes controlling your weight?
Ralitsa Petrova, Columbia University.  Wrote content for A stroke of genesis in the brain
Rebecca Dyer , Cornell University. Wrote content for If you're happy do you show it?
Rebecca M. Price, University of Washington Bothell.  Wrote content for Gearing up to Jump
Rich Fiorella, University of Michigan.  Wrote content for How unique are today's temperatures?
Robin Williamson.  Wrote content for Does smoking make a man less of a man?
Sam Haugland, University of Michigan.  Wrote content for Does Earth have a sixth ocean?
Samantha Knoll, University of illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  Wrote content for Fussing with fillaments 
Sara Nason, University of Michigan. Wrote content for Midnight Sun: contributing to global warming?
Sara Reynolds, National Institutes of Health. Wrote content for One vaccine to rule them all
Sarah Moore, University of California San Diego.  Wrote content for Do you remember being born?
Shazzad Hossain Mukit, Universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity.  Wrote content for Overcrowding in neuronal synapses  
Stephanie Redmond, University of California San Francisco.  Wrote content for New Neurons Stand Out From the Crowd 
Stephen N. Floor, University of California Berkeley.  Wrote content for Black holes and galazies...having a blast together 
Tara Bracken, University of Georgia. Wrote content for A caffeine jolt gives bees a buzz to remember 
Tatiana Schnieder, Columbia University. Wrote content for Origin of immunity 
Tessy Thomas, University of Maryland, College Park.  Wrote content for Unidirectional growth...the road to designer micelles 
Travis Dittmer. Wrote content for CSI Africa: Tracking ivory poachers
Valerie May, Woodstock Academy. Wrote content for Metabolic middle ground

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Additional Editorial review by Joi Granger, Rachel Walther, Jennifer Levin, and Laura Zahn